Burns wrote this satirical attack against a particularly sanctimonious Kirk elder, William Fisher, who had made a public complaint against Burns’s friend, Gavin Hamilton – for such sins as digging his garden on a Sunday instead of reading a Bible
My lov'd, my honor'd, much respected friend, No mercenary Bard his homage pays; With honest pride, I scorn each selfish end, My dearest meed, a friend's esteem and praise: To you I sing, in simple Scottish lays, The lowly train in life's sequester'd scene; The native feelings strong, the guileless ways, What Aiken in a Cottage would have been; Ah! tho' his worth unknown, far happier there I ween!
II November chill blaws loud wi' angry sugh; The short'ning winter-day is near a close; The miry beasts retreating frae the pleugh; The black'ning trains o' craws to their repose: The toil-worn COTTER frae his labor goes, This night his weekly moil is at an end, Collects his spades, his mattocks, and his hoes, Hoping the morn in ease and rest to spend, And weary, o'er the moor, his course does hameward bend.
III At length his lonely Cot appears in view, Beneath the shelter of an aged tree; Th' expectant wee-things, toddlan, stacher thro’ To meet their Dad, wi' flichterin noise and glee. His wee bit ingle, blinkin bonilie, His clean hearth-stane, his thrifty Wifie's smile, His lisping infant, prattling on his knee, Does a' his weary carking cares beguile, And makes him quite forget his labor and his toil.
IV Belyve, the elder bairns come drapping in, At Service out, amang the farmers roun'; Some ca' the pleugh, some herd, some tentie rin A cannie errand to a neebor town: Their eldest hope, their Jenny, woman-grown, In youthfu' bloom, Love sparkling in her e'e, Comes hame; perhaps, to show a braw new gown, Or deposite her sair-won penny-fee, To help her Parents dear, if they in hardship be.
V With joy unfeign'd, brothers and sisters meet, And each for other's weelfare kindly spiers: The social hours, swift-wing'd, unnotic'd, fleet; Each tells the uncos that he sees or hears. The Parents partial eye their hopeful years; Anticipation forward points the view; The Mother, wi' her needle and her sheers Gars auld claes look amainst as weel's the new; The Father mixes a' wi' admonition due.
VI Their Master's and their Mistress's command, The youngkers a' are warned to obey; And mind their labors wi' an eydent hand, And ne'er, tho' out o' sight, to jauk or play: 'And O! be sure to fear the LORD alway! And mind your duty, duely, morn and night! Lest in temptation's path ye gang astray, Implore His counsel and assisting might: They never sought in vain, that sought the LORD aright.'
VII But hark! a rap comes gently to the door; Jenny, wha kens the meaning o' the same, Tells how a neebor lad came o'er the muir, To do some errands, and convoy her hame. The wily Mother sees the conscious flame Sparkle in Jenny's e'e, and flush her cheek, With heart-struck, anxious care enquires his name, While Jenny hafflins is afraid to speak; Weel-pleas'd the Mother hears, it's nae wild, worthless Rake.
VIII With kindly welcome, Jenny brings him ben; A strappan youth, he takes the Mother's eye; Blythe Jenny sees the visit's no ill-taen; The Father cracks of horses, pleughs and kye. The youngster's artless heart o'erflows wi' joy, But blate and laithfu', scarce can weel behave; The Mother, wi' a woman's wiles, can spy What makes the youth sae bashfu' and sae grave; Weel-pleas'd to think her bairn's respected like the lave.
IX O happy love! where love like this is found! O heart-felt raptures! bliss beyond compare! I've paced much this weary, mortal round, And sage EXPERIENCE bids me this declare – 'If Heaven a draught of heavenly pleasure spare, One cordial in this melancholly Vale, 'Tis when a youthful, loving, modest Pair, In other's arms, breathe out the tender tale, Beneath the milk-white thorn that scents the ev'ning gale.'
X Is there, in human-form, that bears a heart – A wretch! a villain! lost to love and truth! That can, with studied, sly, ensnaring art, Betray sweet Jenny's unsuspecting youth? Curse on his perjur'd arts! dissembling, smoothe! Are Honor, Virtue, Conscience, all exil'd? Is there no Pity, no relenting Ruth, Points to the Parents fondling o'er their Child? Then paints the ruin'd Maid, and their distraction wild!
XI But now the Supper crowns their simple board, The healsome Porritch, chief o' SCOTIA's food: The soupe their only Hawkie does afford, That, 'yont the hallan snugly chows her cood: The Dame brings forth, in complimental mood, To grace the lad, her weel-hain'd kebbuck, fell; And aft he's prest, and aft he ca's it guid; The frugal Wifie, garrulous, will tell, How 'twas a towmond auld, sin' Lint was i' the bell.
XII The chearfu' Supper done, wi' serious face, They, round the ingle, form a circle wide; The Sire turns o'er, wi' patriarchal grace, The big ha'-Bible, ance his Father's pride. His bonnet rev'rently is laid aside, His lyart haffets wearing thin and bare; Those strains that once did sweet in ZION glide, He wales a portion with judicious care, ‘And let us worship GOD!' he says with solemn air.
XIII They chant their artless notes in simple guise; They tune their hearts, by far the noblest aim: Perhaps Dundee's wild-warbling measures rise, Or plaintive Martyrs, worthy of the name; Or noble Elgin beets the heaven-ward flame, The sweetest far of SCOTIA's holy lays: Compar'd with these, Italian trills are tame; The tickl'd ears no heart-felt raptures raise; Nae unison hae they, with our CREATOR’S praise.
XIV The priest-like Father reads the sacred page, How Abram was the friend of GOD on high; Or, Moses bade eternal warfare wage, With Amalek's ungracious progeny; Or, how the royal Bard did groaning lye, Beneath the stroke of Heaven's avenging ire; Or Job's pathetic plaint, and wailing cry; Or rapt Isaiah's wild, seraphic fire; Or other Holy Seers that tune the sacred lyre.
XV Perhaps the Christian Volume is the theme: How guiltless blood for guilty man was shed; How HE, who bore in Heaven the second name, Had not on Earth whereon to lay His head; How His first followers and servants sped; The Precepts sage they wrote to many a land: How he, who lone in Patmos, banished, Saw in the sun a mighty angel stand; And heard great Bab'lon's doom pronounc'd by Heaven's command.
XVI Then kneeling down to HEAVEN’S ETERNAL KING, The Saint, the Father, and the Husband prays: Hope 'springs exulting on triumphant wing,' That thus they all shall meet in future days: There, ever bask in uncreated rays, No more to sigh or shed the bitter tear, Together hymning their CREATOR’S praise In such society, yet still more dear; While circling Time moves round in an eternal sphere.
XVII Compar'd with this, how poor Religion's pride, In all the pomp of method, and of art; When men display to congregations wide, Devotion's ev'ry grace, except the heart! The POWER, incens'd, the Pageant will desert, The pompous strain, the sacredotal stole; But haply, in some Cottage far apart, May hear, well-pleas'd, the language of the Soul; And in His Book of Life the inmates poor enroll.
XVIII Then homeward all take off their sev'ral way; The youngling Cottagers retire to rest: The Parent-pair their secret homage pay, And proffer up to Heaven the warm request, That ‘HE who stills the raven's clam'rous nest, And decks the lily fair in flow'ry pride, Would, in the way His Wisdom sees the best, For them and for their little ones provide; But chiefly, in their hearts with Grace divine preside.’
XIX From Scenes like these, old SCOTIA’S grandeur springs, That makes her lov'd at home, rever'd abroad: Princes and lords are but the breath of kings, 'An honest man's the noble work of GOD:' And certes, in fair Virtue's heavenly road, The Cottage leaves the Palace far behind: What is a lordling's pomp? a cumbrous load, Disguising oft the wretch of human kind, Studied in arts of Hell, in wickedness refin'd!
XX O SCOTIA! my dear, my native soil! For whom my warmest wish to Heaven is sent! Long may thy hardy sons of rustic toil Be blest with health and peace and sweet content! And O may Heaven their simple lives prevent From Luxury's contagion, weak and vile! Then howe'er crowns and coronets be rent, A virtuous Populace may rise the while, And stand a wall of fire, around their much-lov'd ISLE.
XXI O THOU! who pour'd the patriotic tide, That stream'd thro' great, unhappy WALLACE’ heart, Who dar'd to, nobly, stem tyrannic pride, Or nobly die, the second glorious part: (The Patriot's GOD, peculiarly thou art, His friend, inspirer, guardian, and reward!) O never, never SCOTIA’S realm desert, But still the Patriot, and the Patriot-bard, In bright succession raise, her Ornament and Guard!
To a Mouse,
On turning her up in her Nest with the Plough, November, 1785.
Burns had a genius for using the smallest details he observed in his daily life to explore universal themes. In one tiny instant, this poem moves through the fragile relationship between Man and Nature to the future of Humanity itself
Never entitled to vote, and from a relatively humble background, Burns found a form of social equality among the Freemasons – who adopted the young poet as ‘Caledonia’s Bard’. Within the Masonic Lodges, Burns found an audience for his poetry, opportunities for social advancement and themes of universal brotherhood that appealed strongly to his democratic instincts.
One of Burns’s most famous love songs, Ae Fond Kiss was written to mark his parting from Agnes McLehose, a wealthy society Lady whom Burns had met in Edinburgh and with whom he carried on a passionate correspondence